The main areas of the church with which you should be concerned:
The sanctuary is the area in the center and toward the front of the church where the altar, the ambo, and the priest’s and deacon’s chairs are located.
The sacristy is the room where the priest, deacon and altar servers vest and prepare for Mass. Many of the items used in the celebration of the Mass are stored there.
Other areas include the baptistry, where the baptismal font is located and where baptisms may be celebrated; the chapel of reservation, where the consecrated Holy Eucharist is kept outside of Mass; and one or more reconciliation chapels, where the sacrament of penance is celebrated.
Special books that are used during the celebration:
The Lectionary is the large book containing the Bible readings. There may be a separate Book of the Gospels, called the evangelary.
The Roman Missal is the large book used by the priest when standing at his chair and at the altar during Mass. (The former name for this book was the Sacramentary.)
Other books may be used too in the sanctuary, including a hymnal, a book containing general intercessions, ritual books for the various sacraments, and a book of announcements.
Special vessels used in Mass:
The chalice is the cup that holds the wine for consecration and communion.
The paten is a plate that holds the breads for consecration and communion.
The ciborium is a special vessel used to hold the breads for communion of the people. It has a lid or cover.
The cruet is the small jar that contains the water to be used at Mass. Cruets are usually made of glass or ceramic, with a handle.
The decanter is a large jar that contains the wine to be used at Mass. A decanter is usually made of glass or ceramic.
The vestments and linens used in Mass:
The alb is a long white robe worn by the priest, and (in some parishes) by other ministers too, including altar servers.
The cincture is a rope or cord worn around the waist over the alb,
The stole is a garment in the form of a long, narrow band of cloth which the priest wears draped over his shoulders and hanging down in front, or a deacon wears draped over one shoulder and fastened at his side. It may be white or colored.
The chasuble is the outer garment worn by the priest at Mass. It may be white or another liturgical color and usually matches the color of the stole.
The dalmatic is the outer garment worn by the deacon.
The corporal is a white cloth that is spread upon the altar during Mass to hold the chalice, paten and ciboria.
The pall is a small, square, protective cover of stiffened cloth placed on the chalice during Mass.
The purificator is a white linen cloth which the priest or deacon used to wipe out the chalice during Mass.
The chalice veil is a cloth that covers the chalice during the Mass when the chalice is not being used.
The finger towel, or hand towel, is a cloth napkin used to dry the priest’s hands.
Other vestments which may be worn in certain circumstances include the following:
The amice is an oblong white linen cloth worn about the neck and shoulders, under the alb, by a priest or deacon.
The cassock is a robe (usually black) worn in some parishes by the priest and other ministers during liturgical functions. The surplice is worn over it.
The surplice is a white garment, shorter than an alb, worn over the cassock.
The miter is a ceremonial hat sometimes worn by a bishop on special occasions. The crosier (more often referred to as "staff") is the shepherd’s staff carried by the bishop.
The following furniture items may be found in the sanctuary:
The presidential chair is the chair from which the priest presides during the liturgy of the word and during the concluding prayers of the Mass.
The lecturn is a stand from which the priest or another minister reads or speaks to the congregation. The stand used for the scripture readings and the homily is also called the pulpit or an ambo.
The altar is the holy table from which the priest presides over the liturgy of the Eucharist. It is covered with an altar cloth.
The credence table is another name for the side table in the sanctuary where the wine and water cruets, communion patens, etc., are kept during Mass when they are not being used.
The gifts table is the table that holds the bread and wine before it is presented to the altar. (This is also called the offertory table.)
Some other items with which to be concerned:
The ambry is the cabinet that holds the holy oils, usually near the font.
The tabernacle is the large, ornate safe in which consecrated Eucharistic Bread is kept for the communion of the sick and for adoration by the people outside of Mass. It is usually located in an area apart from the sanctuary. The tabernacle key, when not in use, is kept in a safe place, usually locked in a safe place in the sacristy.
The censer (or thurible) is a metal container on a chain in which incense is burned on a piece of charcoal.
The incense boat is a covered container, with a spoon, for the incense that will be burned in the censer.
The funeral pall is a large decorated cloth that covers the casket during a funeral Mass.
The holy water sprinkler (or aspergill) is a device, usually a metal stick or the branch from a bush, used by the priest to sprinkle holy water on the people or objects that he blesses.
The hosts is another term for the breads that are consecrated at Mass for the communion of the priest and the people. Many parishes continue to follow the practice of having a large host for the priest and small individual hosts for the people.
Chrism is the holy oil used to anoint people in baptism, confirmation and ordination. It is made from olive oil and a special perfume. The chrism is kept in the ambry.
The monstrance is a large, standing vessel used to show people the holy bread that is the body of Christ. The lunette is a small glass container that holds the host and is put inside the monstrance.